East of the Manzano and Sandia mountains lies Torrance County, one of the state's top-10 agricultural producers. While farming and ranching are traditional livelihoods, the economic base has changed over the years with population increases. A growing number of Torrance County residents commute to Albuquerque or Santa Fe for jobs, and live in newly developed subdivisions. During the 1990's Torrance County posted the highest growth rate among counties, at 64.4 percent. In more recent years, the county's population has seen some decline, decreasing by 5.5 percent since 2010. About 95 percent of residents live in the county's western half. Torrance County also includes four Mexican land grants.
- Area: 3,355 square miles
- County seat: Estancia
- Density: 4.6 people per square mile
- Incorporated communities: Encino, Estancia, Moriarty, Mountainair, Willard
- Population, 2015: 15,485
- Major private employers: Sandia Tobacco, Tagawa Greenhouses, Central New Mexico Electric Co-op
- Major public employers: Moriarty School District
Torrance County, which lies in the geographical center of New Mexico, takes in the Estancia Valley (an ancient lakebed) and the rolling High Plains. To the west are the Manzano and Sandia mountains.
Between 1100 and 1500, early occupants built massive pueblos that became trade centers. In the 1600s, Spanish priests built missions at the largest pueblos of Quarai, Abo and Gran Quivira. In the late 1670's, after years of drought, Apache attacks and epidemics, forced pueblo people to move to the Rio Grande. The Spanish Governor issued a grant in 1819 to Bartolomé Baca for one-million acres. Torrance County was created from an eastern section of Valencia County in 1903, and named for Francis J. Torrance, one of the promoters of the New Mexico Central Railroad.
- County manager, appointed by commission
- Three commissioners, elected by district for two-year terms
- Air: Moriarty Municipal Airport, Estancia Municipal Airport, Mountainair Municipal Airport, Sandia Air Park
- Rail, freight: Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad
- Roads: I-40, New Mexico State Road 333 (historic Route 66), New Mexico State Road 41, New Mexico State Road 55, U.S. 60
- Kindergarten to 12th grade: Moriarty, Estancia, and Mountainair school districts